No. 2 Construction Battalion
1916 - 1920
Nova Scotia


The Black military heritage in Canada is still generally unknown and unwritten.  Many Canadians of all races have no idea that Blacks served, fought, bled, and died on European battlefields, all in the name of freedom.  The fact that approximately six hundred Black soldiers served in a segregated non-combatant labour battalion during World War One has been one of the best kept secrets in Canadian military history.
Lest we forget.

Quoted from the Preface to The Black Battalion, 1916 - 1920, Canada's Best Kept Military Secret, ISBN 0920852920, 125 pages, by Dr. Calvin W. Ruck, published 1987 by Nimbus Publishing Limited, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

1914 November 6

November 6, 1914

To Sir Sam Hughes
Minister of Militia and Defence

Dear Sir:
The colored people of Canada want to know why they are not allowed to enlist in the Canadian militia.  I am informed that several who have applied for enlistment in the Canadian expeditionary forces have been refused for no other apparent reason than their color, as they were physically and mentally fit.

Thanking you in advance for any information that you can & will give me in regards to this matter I remain yours respectfully, for King & Country.

Arthur Alexander,
North Buxton, Ont.
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1914 November 20

Nov. 20th, 1914

To Arthur Alexander, Esq.,
North Buxton, Ont.

H.Q. 297-1-21
The Honorable Minister of Militia and Defence has duly received your letter of 6th instant enquiring about coloured people not being allowed to enlist in the Canadian Militia for Overseas Expeditionary Force.

Under instructions already issued, the selection of Officers and men for the second contingent is entirely in the hands of Commanding Officers, and their selections or rejections are not interfered with from Headquarters.

I have the honor to be,
Your obedient servant,
(signature illegible)

Military Secretary.
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1915 November 18

Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Telegraph
Nov 18th 1915

From StJohn NB
To Secretary Militia Council

h9ra y 27-2 Extra
Is there a colored Battalion being formed in any part of Canada twenty colored men here have passed medical examination and are anxious to go.
Beverley R Armstrong
Lt Col.
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1915 November 21

Nov. 21, 1915

To Sir Sam Hughes, M.P.

Ottawa, Ontario

Hon. Sir:
On behalf of St. John's Colored residents I desire to return thanks to you for remarks made in regards to Coloured Men enlisting in Canada's fighting lines.  I received a letter from you along the same lines, dated October 6/15.  I showed the letter to the Colored Boys shortly after it reached me.  Some of them tried to enlist but were turned down.  I sent them back again with the threat that I would call for a showdown if they did not get a chance, after a while 20 were accepted, sworn in, etc., ordered to be ready to join the 104th at Sussex, 15 Nov.  They reported, went forward at noon with about 50 Whites.

On arrival they met the 2nd Commanding Officer who told them he knew nothing of their coming, and to get right away from there as he would not have them at all, in fact insulted them.  He told them that a Colored Battalion was being formed in Ontario and to go there.  They arrived back in the city at 9:30, the same night Nov. 15/1915.  Reported to the recruiting office Mill St., they were told there to come around in the morning.  They went from there to other Recruiting Officers, but nothing has been done for them.

They have been told that they are not on the payroll, not entitled to sub-sistence money, and that in fact they are only Militia men.  These men are all poor men, some with families.  On an average each was making at least $12.00 per week when they threw up their jobs to enlist and fight for their Empire and King.

Nothing has been done for these people by the Military here, it is a downright shame and an insult to the Race, the way our people have been used in regards to wanting to enlist, etc.

England and some of her allies are using many Colored troops, and the Colored people are talking of appealing to the embassys at Washington whose countries are using Colored Men to be allowed to enter the Foreign services.

I have counseled against this as I believe you will right the wrong.

I wish you would have this matter cleared up at your earliest moment of leisure and issue a general order that Colored, where fit, shall not be discriminated against by the Military Recruiting Officers in Canada.

I am quite against a Battalion myself as I am directly opposed to segregation.

Yours "for a square deal for each and for all"
(signed) John T. Richards
274 Prince William St.

(St. John, N.B.)
P.S.  Enclosing news comments from leading papers, Nov. 20.
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1915 November 25

1915 November 29

1915 December 9

1915 December 14

1916 March 21

1916 March 24

House of Commons Debates
Ottawa, 24 March 1916

Enlistment of Coloured Men


On the Orders of the Day:
Hon. William Pugsley:
Have any effective steps been taken to enable coloured citizens of Canada who are desirous of enlisting for service abroad to enlist, or for the formation of a regiment of coloured citizens? I have brought this question before the House on at least two previous occasions, in consequence of representations which were made to me by some coloured citizens of New Brunswick, as well as some from Ontario.

The Minister of Militia made the statement that the matter was under consideration.  There is a good deal of complaint and a very considerable amount of feeling among our coloured citizens that they have not been treated fairly.  They have been told that their services would be accepted, and when they have gone to the recruiting office where they were told to go, they have been sent away without receiving any satisfaction.

The Minister of Militia, I think, has in mind the idea that a coloured regiment might be raised in Canada.  I should like to know what steps, if any, have been taken towards this end.

Hon. A.E. Kemp (Acting Minister of Militia and Defence):
I understand there are a number of coloured people in the various units throughout the country; but I am not aware that any effort has so far been made to organize a unit composed wholly of coloured citizens.  Some steps may have been taken, but I have no information to that effect at present.  I shall make inquiries.
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1916 April 13

Chief of the General Staff
13 April 1916

Memorandum on the
enlistment of Negroes in
Canadian Expeditionary Force

1.  Nothing is to be gained by blinking facts.  The civilized negro is vain and imitative; in Canada he is not being impelled to enlist by a high sense of duty; in the trenches he is not likely to make a good fighter; and the average white man will not associate with him on terms of equality.  Not a single commanding officer in Military District No. 2 is willing to accept a coloured platoon as part of his battalion (H.Q. 297-1-29); and it would be humiliating to the coloured men themselves to serve in a battalion where they were not wanted.

2.  In France, in the firing line, there is no place for a black battalion, C.E.F.  It would be eyed askance; it would crowd out a white battalion; and it would be difficult to re-inforce.

3.  Nor could it be left in England and used as a draft-giving depot; for there would be trouble if negroes were sent to the front for the purpose of reinforcing white battalions; and, if they are any good at all, they would resent being kept in Canada for the purpose of finding guards, etc.

4.  It seems, therefore, that three courses are practicable:

      (a) As at present, to allow Negroes to enlist, individually, into white battalions at the discretion of commanding officers.

      (b) To allow them to form one or more labour battalions.  Negroes from Nova Scotia, for example, would not be unsuitable for the purpose.

      (c) To ask the British Government if it can make use of a black battalion, C.E.F., on special duty overseas (e.g. in Egypt): but the battalion will not be ready before the fall, and, if only on account of its relatively extravagant rates of pay, it will not mix well with other troops.

5.  I recommend courses (a) and (b).

W. Gwatkin
Chief of the General Staff
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1916 October 28

1917 February 21

Military Secretary
Interdepartmental Committee
21 February 1917

Memo to The Naval Secretary
Interdepartmental Committee

H.Q. 600-10-35, f.d.25.

We want to send overseas a labour batallion, composed of Negroes, with whom white troops object to travel.

We should like to embark this batallion, by Itself, in the NORTHLAND due to leave Halifax, N.S., on the 10th or 11th proximo (next month).

Do you object to that vessel sailing without an escort?  I suppose she would (be) looked after as she approached home waters.  The shipping Company concerned is prepared to take the risk.

W. Gwatkin
For Military Secretary
Interdepartmental Committee
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1917 February 23

Department of
The Naval Services
Ottawa, 23 February 1917

Memo to The Military Secretary
Interdepartmental Committee

Refer to No. G.47-14-17.

With reference to your memorandum H.Q.600-10-35f.d.25 of 21st instant regarding the sailing of the "NORTHLAND", I regret the ship cannot possibly proceed without an escort.  Cannot she be hastened to sail with other troopships from Halifax on 9th March?
(signature illegible)
Naval Secretary
Interdepartmental Committee
— Original in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa

1917 August 17

Truro Daily News
August 17, 1917
A "D.C.M." for a Truro Soldier

Pte. Jerry Jones, Ford St., Runs in Bunch of Huns
Captures Their Machine Gun
Facetiously Hands M.G. Over to His C.O.

Has been recommended for Distinguished Conduct Medal – what a Truro Officer in England writes.

We believe the well-known, industrious and highly respected Truro colored man, Pte. Jerry Jones, a resident of Ford Street, who went overseas with the 106th Battalion, has scored a big hit in his scraps with the Huns at the front.

When Jerry Jones joined the 106th under Col. Innis, he was a strapping big fellow – a fine looking soldier – he took a humble position; played his part well; went overseas; volunteered for the battlefield and has been a terror to the treacherous German on more than one occasion.

He was lately wounded in action and is just recovering and nobly getting ready for his "bit" again.

He has shown himself a patriot, brave, powerful and resourceful, and we understand he has been recommended for the Distinguished Conduct Medal.

Here is a letter we have just received from a Truro officer in Witley Camp, England, about some Truro heroes.

(Witley Camp, Surrey, July 25, 1917) All Nova Scotians, and especially those of us from Truro were delighted when we heard that Fred Huntley had won distinction for bravery at the front.

Word comes from those heroes, who are daily arriving in English hospitals of numerous acts of bravery on the part of our boys from home, many of which should be rewarded with V.C.s but will never reach beyond the eyes of those who are now past recording such events.

One of the humble citizens of Truro, always an honest, hard-working man was reported wounded several weeks ago.  I last saw him in Bramshott in January before he had gone to France, had a few words with him, next heard he had been wounded and only today, from one of the lads in hospital, who had been with him at the time, did I hear the complete story of how "JERRY JONES" had captured a German machine gun, forced the crew to carry it back to our lines, and depositing it at the feet of the C.O. said: "Is this thing any good?" ("Isn't that just like our big, honest, witty Jerry?"  – Ed. News.)

The report is that he has been recommended for a D.C.M.  I hope it is true.  All honor to this man, who is ready for the front again.

May he live to return to Truro and receive the welcome he deserves.

We are glad for those encouraging lines for the boys from a Military Camp in England and the thoughtful writer need never fear but what if "Jerry Jones" returns to Truro with a D.C.M.  He'll be the lion of the hour.

We here can see that great big colored man, on the battlefield, without a word of German in his Ford Street vernacular order those cowardly Huns to pack up their machine gun and march to the British lines!  Well done, Jerry.

1917 August 29

1918 August 28

The Toronto Telegram
August 28,1918
Colored Men Are Barred
Royal Air Force Restricts

Were Applicants Numerous Enough
to Form a Company
Their Enlistment Might Be Entertained

That colored men are barred from the Royal Air Force in Canada is admitted by Capt. Seymour, of the Headquarters staff.  "Were coloured volunteers numerous enough to make up a company of their own, their applications might be entertained," he said, "but as they are few, it has been considered advisable to refuse all applications for enlistment."

The question was raised by the non-acceptance of Harold Leopold Bell, a Jamaican, 24 years of age, with wife and two children.  He voluntarily enlisted in Boston, Mass., and was sent to Camp Sussex, N.B., last July.  On August 21 he was given his discharge to come to Toronto to become a mechanic with the R.A.F.  On his discharge paper he is decsribed, "Complexion – Dark".  He claims to be an expert machinist of seven years' experience, and to know gas engines, yet when he reported to the recruiting depot at George and Duke Streets with an inexperienced French-Canadian, the latter was accepted and he was rejected.


Transportation back to Camp Sussex was offered him, but as he has been discharged from that unit, Bell has secured employment in a munition plant.

The Military Service Act drafts colored men, but the Royal Air Force does not come within the scope of the act.  The R.A.F. are exercising the greatest care when applicants come from the States claiming they are British subjects, and now will not accept any evidence other than the birth certificate.

1982 September 17

1982 October 14

1982 November 10

1982 November 12

1991 October 18

Submission to
The Historic Sites and Monuments Board
18 October 1991

Dr. Calvin Ruck, Chair
Black Battalion Committee

A brief history of the No. 2 Construction Battalion, C.E.F. with respect to its association with events, persons, and places of national historic significance.

One international historian (David Shermer) emphatically declares that World War One was the most significant turning point in the history of the twentieth century. (1)

Some referred to it as "The War To End All Wars".  The United States entered the War in 1917, proclaiming it as "A War To Make The World Safe For Democracy".

It was an emotional time and also a majestic time.  A time for one's manhood to be tested in the arena of world conflict.

Canadians in general were caught up in the excitement associated with participation in a World War.  The mother country was at war, so Canada was at war, and that's all there was to it.

Every able-bodied Canadian male was expected to do his part, to join the colours, to serve king and country.  Patriotism was rampant. (2)

At the outbreak of the War In August 1914, Black Canadians in common with other Canadians were also caught up in the patriotic fervour sweeping the country.

Blacks were no exception.  They were also seeking the adventure, the status, the glory, and the financial benefits associated with wearing the king's uniform.

They also desired a piece of the action.  In the words of Sydney M. Jones, a surviving black World War One veteran, "It was the thing to do". (3)

However, Black Canadians received a devastating signal that they were considered third class citizens.

The fact that they generally were not included in the patriotic and military institutions of Canada was made painfully evident. (4)

From British Columbia in the west to Nova Scotia in the east, black volunteers for the Canadian Expeditionary Force were being turned away in large numbers; commonly heard was the phrase, "This is a white man's war". (5)

Many commanding and recruiting officers refused to accept black recruits in their units.  Consequently, the first battle blacks had to overcome was not against the known enemy, but an unequal struggle against entrenched racism.

Some light complexioned blacks were successful in evading the colour bar by passing as Indians or whites.

Some commanding officers accepted a limited number of blacks into their regiments. (6)

Black leaders and some white supporters in various provinces made the rejection of black volunteers a national issue. (7)

The records indicated that at least two blatant acts of racial discrimination led to the matter being debated in the House of Commons. (8)

In November 1915, twenty black volunteers from New Brunswick persisted in their efforts to enlist, and were finally accepted at a Saint John recruiting station.  After being sworn in, they were sent to Sussex to join the 104th Battalion.  On arrival, the officer in charge refused to accept them, and sent them back to Saint John. (9)

As a further indication of the intense desire of blacks to serve their beloved country, a black journalist in Toronto wrote to Sir Sam Hughes, the minister of militia and defence, patriotically offering to recruit a unit of one hundred and fifty black soldiers.

After being granted permission by Hughes, he was later informed by the district commanding officer that no commanding officer in Military District No. 2 was willing to accept the platoon.  Permission to recruit was withdrawn. (10)

The issue of the general rejection of blacks was debated in the House of Commons on March 24, 1916.  The debate was followed by instructions to the chief of the general staff, Major General W. Gwatkin, for a report.

Gwatkin, in a memorandum of April 13, 1916, [above] put forth some disparaging opinions with respect to the loyalty and the combat capability of black men.  The unkindest cut of all was his assertion that, "the civilized negro is vain and imitative; in Canada he is not being impelled to enlist by a high sense of duty".

Among other things he recommended: "To allow them to form one or more labour battalions.  Negroes from Nova Scotia, for example, would not be unsuitable for the purpose." (11)

Gwatkin's memo to the militia council was to become the genesis for the emergence of a racially segregated Construction Battalion.

The Battalion has a distinct and direct association with the then Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden.

On April 16, 1916, at a meeting of the militia council with the Prime Minister presiding, the decision was made to form a black labour Battalion headquartered in Nova Scotia, subject to the approval of the British command.  That approval was received three weeks later. (12)

Borden, a Nova Scotian, took a personal interest in the Battalion, and played a direct hands-on role in establishing the unit.

For approximately two months after its conception, military officials experienced great difficulty in finding a qualified officer willing to command a Black Battalion.  The adjutant general himself referred to the No. 2 Construction as a somewhat peculiar command.

The Prime Minister intervened in the process and suggested a fellow Nova Scotian, Lt. Col. Daniel H. Sutherland, as a potential commander. (13)

On July 5, 1916, one day after Sutherland agreed to accept the position, the official authorization of the No. 2 Construction Battalion was formally announced. (14)

Borden's personal interest and association with the development process led to the acquiring of a commanding officer which was a crucial factor in the Battalion becoming a reality and a first in Canadian military history.

Generally, the original rank and file members of military units are recruited in a distinct geographical area.  In this unique event the Battalion, officered by whites, was granted special authority to recruit in all provinces, wherever blacks could be found. (15)

It was in every sense a Battalion of national significance.

Another event of both national and international historic significance occurred when Canadian and American officials co-operated to permit the recruitment of blacks in the United States while that country was still neutral.

One hundred and sixty eight blacks crossed the border to bolster the ranks of the Battalion. (16)

No doubt another first in Canadian military history.

The unique and special status of the Battalion in terms of historical significance can be further measured by the authority granted to Col. Sutherland with respect to reporting.

He was authorized to communicate directly with the militia council in Ottawa, thereby by-passing the normal channel of command in Halifax. (17)

Needless to say, the special treatment accorded to the Battalion led to considerable animosity from other units.

As a matter of fact, it was suggested that to avoid offending the susceptibility of other troops, that the Battalion be sent overseas in a separate transport without escort.

The suggestion was rejected by the Royal Navy. (18)

The Chaplain, Honorary Captain (Rev.) William A. White, was the first Black Commissioned Officer in the Canadian Armed Forces.  The war diary of the Battalion indicates that he was the only black officer (Chaplain) in the British Forces during the war. (19)

Walker writes that Captain White, while serving in France, experienced rejection when an extra Protestant Chaplain was sent into the area, because he was not acceptable to the white units. (20)

Reverend White was honoured by his alma mater, Acadia University, with an honourary Doctor of Divinity degree. (21)

At his death in September 1936, the Halifax papers lauded his service to king and country.  Indications are that he was the first black man to be awarded an honourary degree in Canada. (22)

After arriving in England (April 1917) the battalion was relegated to the status of a labour company, due to being under strength.  The company was assigned to the Canadian Forestry Corps. (23)

When suggestions were put forth to Prime Minister Borden and others on ways to augment the unit, Major Bristol, secretary to the Canadian Overseas Militia Minister, was requested to make a report.

In a response labelled "personal", Bristol stated that "these niggers do well in a Forestry Corps and other labour units", but since their numbers were so limited, "the prospects of maintaining a Battalion are not very bright." (24)

The black company was stationed in a remote location without any means of amusement.  Segregation in terms of facilities was total.  They had to wait for the creation of a separate "black" Y.M.C.A., for their entertainment.  They were also subjected to other forms of discriminatory treatment, such as a separate "black" wing of the local hospital.

Those who strayed from military discipline were similarly confined in a segregated punishment compound. (25)

The men and boys (some were only 15 and 16 years of age) carried out their assigned tasks willingly and without question.  Canada and the British Empire were in mortal danger, and as in previous wars, they were prepared to serve in any capacity.

With the strength, fortitude, and patience inherited from generations of oppression, they endured and they prevailed.

The black unit being always regarded as a problem and never seriously appreciated, was disbanded with almost unseemly haste soon after the armistice was announced, though the demand for forestry products remained high. (26)

However, they were commended by the commanding officer of the Forestry Corps for their valuable and faithful service. (27)

The unit returned to Canada in January, 1919.  Veterans who were prepared to serve and die for their country came home to many of the same restrictions and oppression.  The great war (World War One) did not end all wars, did not save the world for democracy, and it did not signal an end to racism.

Segregated Graveyards

The Black Veterans in common with other blacks still felt the pain of segregated housing, segregated employment (sleeping car porters) and some segregated graveyards.

In the black section of Camp Hill Cemetery, Halifax, we see headstones bearing the names of departed No. 2 veterans like Corporal George W. Tolliver, 1932, Private Harry Turner, 1941, Private John Lambert, 1917, Private Henry Bundy, 1950, Corporal William Kellum, 1921, and Charles William Jackson, 1921, among others. (28)

Many military historians and writers in general have consistently ignored the roles played by black servicemen in the numerous wars and conflicts that have occurred during the past two centuries or more.

The contribution of blacks to World War One has been virtually unknown or quickly forgotten.

In 1938, under the authority of the Minister of National Defence – Colonel A. Fortesque Duguid, Director of the Historical section, general staff, wrote the official history of World War One.

In his 596-page work, the author tersely and erroneously described black enlistment in four words: "Black volunteers were refused." (29)

We are of the opinion that a permanent nationally recognized memorial to the No. 2 Construction Battalion will assist in the unit acquiring some long overdue status in Canadian history.

If Canada (God forbid) should go to war tomorrow, Black Canadians would still be proud and eager to line up in front of recruiting stations waiting to enlist.

Blacks also experienced problems in enlisting in all three Services during the early years of World War Two.  However, that is another story we are presently pursuing.

Dr. Calvin Ruck

The details of the references indicated above
are unavailable at the time of this posting.

1992 December 11

News Release
Environment Canada

Black Battalion to be Commemorated
11 December 1992

Pictou, Nova Scotia
The No. 2 Construction Battalion will be commemorated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, for its contribution to Canadian history.  This announcement was made today by Public Works Minister Elmer MacKay, MP for Central Nova, on behalf of Environment Minister Jean Charest.

The Board made the recommendation to the Environment Minister at its May 1992 meeting on the basis of the Battalion's historic significance.  The commemoration ceremony is planned for July 1993.

Acting on a documented submission from the Memorial Committee of the Black Cultural Centre, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board concluded that the determination of these men to contribute to Canada's First World War effort is of national historic significance.

The site chosen for the commemoration is the Market Wharf in Pictou, Nova Scotia.  The Market Wharf served as the original headquarters for the No. 2 Construction Battalion, C.E.F. (Canadian Expeditionary Force), Canada's first and only black battalion (1916-1920).

Since 1987, the initiative to acquire national recognition for the Battalion has been pursued co-operatively by the Town of Pictou and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia.  In August 1991, Pictou Town Council declared the Market Wharf a municipal historic property because of its association with the Battalion.

The No. 2 Construction Battalion reflected the strong determination of Black men to contribute to Canada's participation in World War One.  Although hesitant to accept Black men into the Armed Forces, the Canadian military eventually admitted them by creating a segregated non-combatant unit.

Recruitment was carried out in all provinces.  Half of the battalion's 600 members were Nova Scotians, while a sizeable contingent came from the United States.

Authorized on July 5, 1916, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel D.H. Sutherland of River John, Nova Scotia, the Battalion consisted of 19 officers and 605 other ranks.

The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada plays an important role in determining how Canadians commemorate our nation's past.  Its seventeen members, including representatives from every province and territory, advise the Minister of the Environment on heritage issues.  Dr. Margaret Conrad, Head of Acadia University's History Department, is the Nova Scotia member on the Board, which is chaired by Thomas H.B. Symons, the Vanier Professor at Trent University.  Since its creation in 1919, the Board has recommended the commemoration of more than 1000 persons, places, and events of national historic significance.

- 30 -

Further information:
Michelle Smith
Environment Canada
Calvin Ruck
Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia

1993 July 10


The No. 2 Construction Battalion

Canada's First and Only Black Battalion
To Be Honoured
For Service to King & Country (1916 - 1920)
The Market Wharf, Pictou, N.S.

Site of the Original Headquarters
for The Battalion
Saturday, July 10, 1993
Legion Parade – 10:30 a.m.

Unveiling Ceremony – 11:00 a.m.

Reception – 12:00 noon
Sponsors: Black Cultural Centre
Parks Canada
& Pictou Waterfront Development Corp.

for Additional Information Call
Black Cultural Centre – 434-6223
Calvin Ruck, Committee Chair – 435-0503

Photographic reproductions of the originals of many of the above documents are to be found in The Black Battalion, 1916 - 1920, Canada's Best Kept Military Secret ISBN 0-920852-92-0, 125 pages, by Dr. Calvin W. Ruck, 1987, which is still available (November 1996) for $12.95 from Nimbus Publishing Limited, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

No. 2 Construction Battalion

Documents (letters)

to and by Sir Sam Hughes
Minister of Militia and Defence, Ottawa

Memorandum on the enlistment of Negroes...
by Sir Willoughby Garnons Gwatkin
Chief of the General Staff, Ottawa
13 April 1916

Interdepartmental Committee
Military Secretary: Memo to The Naval Secretary
21 February 1917

Interdepartmental Committee
Naval Secretary: Memo to The Military Secretary
23 February 1917

Submission to The Historic Sites and Monuments Board
Dr. Calvin Ruck, Chair
Black Battalion Committee
18 October 1991

Black Battalion to be Commemorated
Environment Canada News Release
Pictou, 11 December 1992

Canada's First and Only Black Battalion to be Honoured
For Service to King & Country (1916-1920)

The No. 2 Construction Battalion
Pictou, 10 July 1993

Names In Ascending Order, by Regimental Number
The No. 2 Construction Battalion
CEF – Canadian Expeditionary Force

Guide to Contents
No. 2 Construction Battalion

Sir Willoughby Garnons Gwatkin (1859-1925)
Dictionary of Canadian Biography

Willoughby Gwatkin (1859-1925)

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